Due to the need to supply housing with electrical energy inside the room, it is necessary to arrange an electrical network. For this purpose, electrical wiring and other elements are laid for connection, switching and lighting of the dwelling. Since this procedure does not require special training, anyone can perform it independently. But first you need to figure out how the wiring is installed in the house with your own hands, from which stages it consists, and what needs to be taken into account. Especially now the demand for this profession is growing, as evidenced by the popularity of the help service with academic assignments among students – https://eduboard.com/service/term-papers-writing-service on essays with works on the topic of electrician.
The whole process can be conditionally divided into several stages, the sequence of which will provide a high-quality result and save time on performing the relevant work. There are such stages of installation:
- Determination of the method of laying – external or external installation of the cable;
- Drawing up a power supply scheme in the room;
- Transferring the compiled scheme directly to the walls;
- Calculation of the electrical wiring section;
- Selection of the most suitable elements and materials for installation;
- Preparatory work on the treatment of walls and other structures for the installation of electrical wiring, installation of lighting groups, automatic protection and others;
- The installation work itself;
- Obtaining permission from the power supply company to connect to its networks, if necessary, the formation of a new connection point (if you are replacing the wiring with a new one, this procedure is not required).
Now take a closer look at each of the stages in practice.
From the existing options for laying cable routes, there are two ways of installation in relation to the wires – internal and external wiring. Internal wiring implies that the cable lines are inside the walls. External wiring is installed on the walls from the outside, while it can be carried out either by wires or by means of protecting the cable from mechanical damage.
The wiring diagram helps to determine the installation locations of sockets, switches, lamps, and wiring lines. Therefore, when compiling it, you need to take into account the wiring diagram of electrical appliances in the house. For example, for home wiring, the location of outlets near the TV, electric stove, bed, etc. will be relevant.
There are two-dimensional and three-dimensional wiring diagrams. The first option is the simplest, since it does not require the use of graphic editors and other programs. To do this, take a plan of your own tenant and mark the connection points and the number of outlets for each room, junction boxes, wires, switches and wiring lines on its copy.
A three-dimensional model is a much more time-consuming process, but it helps perfectly when creating a power supply project. When, according to a ready-made task, the relevant specialists implement such a project (they smash the walls, perform wiring wiring and other electrical work).
To transfer the wiring diagram data to the existing wall structure, it is necessary to use measuring instruments (tape measure, corner, etc.), level, thread and pencil. To do this, the necessary distance is retracted, according to the distances indicated in the diagram and appropriate marks are applied on building structures (walls or ceiling).
Marking can be done with chalk or a construction pencil. The main requirement for the application of the image is to ensure good visibility and the absence of unnecessary details. In the presence of a laser level, this procedure is greatly simplified.
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Structurally , the electrical wiring in the house may include a number of elements:
Wires – for laying in the house. In some situations, aluminum wires can also be used for electrical wiring. The specific option is selected based on the maximum load and insulation requirements.
To determine the maximum currents flowing through the wiring, the power of electrical appliances that can be connected is added, and 20-30% is added to the margin of safety. Based on this, the appropriate section of the vein is selected. The insulation resistance must correspond to the characteristics of the room in which the cable is used and the method of laying. It should be noted that cables must be planned with a margin, since they are used more than the estimated length of the wire at the points of connection or output, and the margin should provide the possibility of reconnection.
Junction boxes are designed to connect various sections of electrical wiring, separation and wiring of electricity. They are divided into outdoor and indoor placement models, which are selected according to the project. Depending on the cross-section of the wires, boxes with the appropriate size of holes are selected.
Sockets – may differ in design features: the presence or absence of a grounding contact, cover, hole size, etc. Also, different models can be designed for indoor or outdoor installation. Some variants have paired connection point pins.
Switches – can have a design with one, two or three keys, a rotary mechanism or a sensor. It should be noted that some switches are equipped with a voltage divider, which can affect the operation of lighting devices.
Lighting devices – are realized by lamps, chandeliers, spotlights, sconces and others. A wide variety provides a choice for installation in various rooms. According to the purpose, it is possible to allocate powerful lighting devices, low-power, for the bathroom, kitchen, etc.
Protective shutdown devices are represented by circuit breakers based on electromagnetic, semiconductor or microprocessor circuits. The installation of an RCD is necessary to protect both the wiring itself in the house from short circuits and fire with household appliances connected to it, and people who may suffer from a breakdown.
Metering devices – monitor the consumption of electricity. Their installation is required when new electricity is connected or if it is provided for by the project. According to the number of phases, electric meters can be connected to a three-phase or single-phase network.
Protective grounding – should be provided for all consumers with a voltage of more than 42 V. Because of this, when connecting new wiring, it is necessary to have a ground loop to which a PE conductor from all consumers is connected.
Cable channels are required for outdoor installation of wiring, according to the material of manufacture, they can be plastic or metal boxes. According to the size, such an option is chosen so that when laying wires, all the necessary conductors can be freely placed in them. Structurally, they can have perforations for cooling or be made whole.