Excavators – features and uses


Excavators can be defined as a heavy construction equipment that consists of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the “house”. They are hydraulic in nature. All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid, with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors. Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators which uses winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements.

Types of Excavator

  • Crawler Excavators
  • Dragline excavators
  • Suction Excavators
  • Skid steer excavators
  • Long reach excavators
  • Backhoe Excavators
  • Power Shovel Excavators
  • Wheeled excavators
  • Mini Excavators
  • Amphibious excavator

 Excavator Attachments and parts

An excavator’s design allows the construction equipment to be used for multiple purposes. Hydraulic excavator capabilities have expanded far beyond excavation tasks with buckets. With the advent of hydraulic-powered attachments such as a breaker, a grapple or an auger, the excavator is frequently used in many applications other than excavation. Many excavators feature a quick coupler for simplified attachment mounting, increasing the machine’s utilization on the jobsite. Excavators are usually employed together with loaders and bulldozers. Most wheeled, compact and some medium-sized (11 to 18-tonne) excavators have a backfill (or dozer) blade. This is a horizontal bulldozer-like blade attached to the undercarriage and is used for levelling and pushing removed material back into a hole.

It consists of attachments provide digging and holding functionalities. It also consists of a rotating platform and wheels provide the necessary mobility to lift and remove debris. Excavators use a variety of hydraulic attachments that serve different purposes auger, lamp, and quick coupler. Some of the attachments and parts used in excavator are – Bucket, Augers, Clamp, Coupler, Thumbs, Breaker, Rippers, Hydraulic cylinder, Boom, Cab, Engine, Counterweight and Track Frame.

Excavators have been in use in large and small scale constructions. They are used for small housing projects to do a cut and fill, used in road construction, used in marine structures to place armor and large rocks and has also been used in larger sites to excavate, move construction material, remove construction waste to name a few. There are several types of excavators which are classified on use, brand and purpose.

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